Yemen has been embroiled in a conflict pitting Iran-backed rebels against government forces for more than seven years.
According to the United Nations, the conflict has killed approximately 380,000 people, either directly in combat or as a result of famine and illness.
In September 2014, the Houthi rebels advanced from their stronghold in Yemen’s northern mountains to seize the capital, Sanaa.
Before overrunning the key Red Sea port of Hodeidah, they join forces loyal to ex-President Ali Abdullah Saleh, who was deposed in a 2011 rebellion.
President Abed Rabbo Mansour Hadi flees to Aden, Yemen’s second largest city, in February 2015.
In March 2015, the Coalition to Restore Legitimacy in Yemen enters the battle with airstrikes against the rebels.
Washington claims to be assisting with logistics and intelligence.
Hadi flees to Saudi Arabia as the rebels advance on Aden.
The participation of the coalition aids pro-government forces in securing Aden.
In October, coalition forces capture control of the Bab Al-Mandab strait, one of the world’s busiest and most significant waterways, near the southern entrance of the Red Sea.
In June 2018, government fighters, backed by coalition ground forces, launched an attack to reclaim Hodeidah, a vital humanitarian entry point.
Following negotiations in Sweden, the UN declares a ceasefire in Hodeidah in December. However, confrontations between rebels and pro-government soldiers have ruined the event.
Southern separatists and northern unionists loyal to Hadi’s administration make up the anti-Houthi camp.
In January 2018, separatists took over the presidential palace in Aden.
Separatists and unionist troops clashed once more in August 2019.
A power-sharing arrangement is hammered out.
Using drones and missiles, the rebels intensify their attacks on Saudi Arabia.
The oil market is affected by a significant strike on the large Abqaiq oil processing plant and the Khurais oil field on September 14, 2019.
Iran is accused by Riyadh and Washington of being behind the strike, which it rejects.
The US withdraws its assistance for the coalition’s military activities in February 2021, and the Houthis are removed from a “terrorist” designation.
Shortly after, the rebels resumed their assault on Yemen’s oil-rich Marib region, the government’s last stronghold in the north.
In January 2022, the rebels target the UAE, hijacking an Emirati-flagged vessel in the Red Sea and then attacking an oil complex in Abu Dhabi with a drone and missile attack that kills three workers.
In February, the USS Cole warship and fighter fighters are dispatched to Abu Dhabi to boost the UAE’s defenses.
In March, the rebels launch a new wave of drone and missile attacks on Saudi oil installations, one of which ignites a massive fire near Jeddah’s Formula One track, engulfing the drivers.
On March 26, the rebels declare an unofficial three-day cease-fire.
The Saudi-led coalition announced its own truce on March 29, coinciding with the start of talks in Saudi Arabia’s capital, which the Houthis have refused to attend.
On the first day of Ramadan, April 2, a UN-brokered ceasefire will begin, marking the first national ceasefire since 2016.
The alliance also agreed to allow gasoline shipments into Hodeidah and commercial flights from rebel-held Sanaa to restart, both of which were significant opposition demands. The two sides swap accusations of violations, but the ceasefire remains in place for the most part.
President Hadi says from Riyadh on April 5 that he is delegating power to a new executive council.
Saudi Arabia is pleased with the news and has pledged $3 billion in help and support, with the UAE covering some of the costs.